transport | urbanism | adventures | pontification
(English Translation Below)
Cuando yo caminaba por Panamá Viejo, yo ví un hombre lavando su bus. Decidí a saludarle y decirle lo de mi proyecto. Luís era muy amable, dandome mucha información sobre el 1987 Blue Bird/International antiguo bus escolar de su padre, y me invitó a acompañarle y el chofer del bus, Edwin, el día sigiuente.
El día sigiuente, me reuní con ellos en frente de los barberías de la Plaza 5 de Mayo a las 8:00. Eso fue la segunda vez que habían pasado la parada, despues de empezar sus vueltas de Panamá Viejo a las 5:40. Yo abordé a y disfruté el día andando por Avenida Balboa en su ruta para Panamá Viejo (mira la linea roja en el mapa que yo hice).
8:05 – Luís and Edwin les digan a los pasajeros quienes quieren viajar a La Terminal de Albrook que desembarquen y cambien buses. Aunque buses de Panamá Viejo usualmente van para la Terminal, entonces se vuelvan y regresan por El Chorrillo, Edwin a menudo no va a la Terminal en las mañanas porque no hay bastante pasajeros allá.
8:10 – Edwin para el bus en el lado de la puente de Avenida 3 de Noviembre a Avenida de los Mártires. El orina en la llanta y un hombre con muletas aborda. Él llama pasajeros al bus en las paradas de Ancón, y Luís le da unos cuartos por la ayuda.
8:25 – Estamos esperando mas pasajeros en El Chorrillo. Álguien pregunta “¿Esperan cuanto para salir de aquí?” Edwin le contesta que vamos a salir cuando un otro bus viene. El otro ya viene, y salimos por las calles angostas para Calle 12.
8:35 – Estamos en Avenida Balboa/La Cinta Costera otra vez. Todos los asientos están occupados, y ocho personas estan parados.
8:45 – Luís pregunta, “¿Nádie para abajo del puente?” Nádie contesta, y por eso, evitamos el tranque caminando por el Puente Via Israel.
8:55 – Entramos el barrio Panamá Viejo, pasando por una area residencial por primera vez.
9:20 – Todos los pasajeros desembarcan en la ultima parada en Vía España. Edwin sale del bus para comprar sus boletos to rotulo. Mientras Edwin está comprando sus boletos, Luís y yo hablamos sobre la transformación de los buses viejos. Me dice que muchos turistas quien abordan su bus no saben que estuvo un bus escolar en EEUU. Edwin regresa, molestado porque no tenían El Chance.
9:30 – Luís les dice “No voy” a los que quieren abordar. Continuamos conversando sobre el reusar de los buses cuando manejamos para Panamá Viejo. Comprando en la subasta, los dueños panameños puenden comprar un bus usado por $4,000. Ellos cambian los cambios de automáticos para palancas, los que piensan son mas durables. Luís y Edwin felicitan la durabilidad de los diablos rojos y critican los buses con aire acondicionado, como los nuevos de Hyundai y Daewoo. Prefieren chassis de International para las máquinas, y para los buses, a Luís le gusta los de Thomas (mas de Blue Bird), porque son mejor para modificar con pintura.
9:40 – Pasamos otro bus de Ruta 1 (Panamá Viejo por Avenida Balboa), y Edwin me dice que el chofer, quien es el dueño también, lo ha conducido en ésta ruta por dieciseis años. Entonces me cuenta sobre lo del dinero. Cada día, hacen seis vueltas, 2.5 horas por cada una. En cada media vuelta, setenta pasajeros abordan, cada uno pagando $0.25. Entonces ingresos son $210. Combustible cuesta $13 cada vuelta. El resto dividen ellos con el dueño (aproximadamente $70), el chofer ($40), y el pavo ($20).
9:55 – Vamos a la casa de la sobrina de Edwin, quien tiene dos años, y vamos con ella para desayunar en la Parrillada Mario. Estacionado en la Avenida Cincuentenario, Luís y Edwin comen arroz con pollo, y yo como un bagel comprado el día anterior del New York Bagel Café, en El Cangrejo.
10:45 – Edwin me pregunta si he manejado un bus, y le contesto que no. Él señala que manejar un diablo rojo sería una parte importante de mi proyecto, y, de repente, estoy en el asiento del chofer. Yo practico con la palanco un rato, y eventualmente conduzco el bus en la calle. Mira el video aquí.
11:30 – Estacionado seguramente en la estación de Esso, ubicado cerca de la piquera de Panamá Viejo, pagamos con cuartos y reímos mirando el video. Yo quiero estar el pavo y llamar pasajeros en la vuelta proxima. Luís dice no, porque los pavos tienen que saber las ubicaciónes de los guárdias y cerrar la puertas. Si no, los guárdias cobraría una multa.
12:00 – Compramos aceite de dirección y lo agregamos a la máquina.
12:40 – Dejamos Briana y llevamos pasajeros de Panamá Viejo a la piquera en Vía España. Al mediodía, hay seis buses esperando hasta los despachadores dicen que puedan salir. Edwin duerme mientras esperamos.
1:40 – Estamos el primer bus en la fila, y pasajeros empiezan a abordar. Despúes de 10 minutos, salimos, empezando la tercer vuelta del día para Luís y Edwin.
2:20 – Pasamos Multiplaza y Multicentro, andando por un tranque hacia la Avenida Balboa/La Cinta Costera.
2:45 – Llegamos en la Terminal de Albrook. Como en la piquera de Panamá Viejo, unos buses ya estan esperando. Vamos a ir directo a Panamá Viejo (no por Calle 12/El Chorrillo o Plaza 5 de Mayo). Luís está de pie al lado del bus, clamando con el despachador “Panamá Viejo, Cinta Costera Directo, Multicentro, Multiplaza, Paitilla, Panamá Viejo!” Les aclara a unas personas que “Cinta Costera Directo” signifca que no va a ir por Calle 12. Luís me dice que pasajeros como éstas personas le frustran porque no escuchan. Algunas veces, cuando un panameño le pregunta a Luís si él va a Albrook inmediatamente despúes él ha decido “Terminal,” le responde al pasajero “no” como una broma. Pero dice que él mismo está mas agradable con turistas y les da la información correcta, a menos que sean gringas guapas. Si gringas guapas abordan el bus, les dice que su ruta va por toda la ciudad y los sitios turisticos. Cuando pasan por las ruinas de Panamá Viejo la tercer vez, las muchachas realizan que ha estado bromeando, pero Luís ya ha mostrado sus amigas nuevas a las otras choferes y pavos.
3:15 – El bus llenado, salimos de la terminal. Cinco minutos despúes, estamos en la puente de Avenida 3 de Noviembre. Dos pasajeros se ponen en pie, caminan a la puerta del bus, y dicen que tienen que salir Plaza 5 de Mayo. Paramos en la entrada de la Cinta Costera para que ellos pueden caminar atras a la Plaza.
4:15 – El tranque esta creciendo, y viajamos lentamente a la piquera, donde Edwin y Luís empiezan su cuarta vuelta del día.
4:40 – Yo salgo del bus en la Avenida Balboa, anteds de la Calle Uruguay, agradeciendoles para su ayuda.
Éste día andando en (y, por cinco minutos, manejando) el bus Pinky y El Cerebro era uno de los mejores de mí año. Estaba agradecido por los puntos de vista útiles y la amistad genuina que Edwin y Luís compartían conmigo. En las semanas siguientes, yo les acompañé en viajes distintas: hacia Tocúmen para comprar luces nuevos con que decoramos el bus, a Los Pueblos para comprar seguros, y arriba del Canal de Panamá a Arraiján para reparar el cambio (¡Ojalá que eso no fuera relacionado a mis problemas con el clutch!).
Generated by Facebook Photo Fetcher 2
When I was walking through Panamá Viejo, I saw a guy washing his bus. I decided to approach him and tell him about my project. Luís was very friendly, giving me lots of information about his father’s 1987 Blue Bird/International former school bus, and he invited me to accompany him and the bus’s driver, Edwin, on their runs the following day.
The next day, I met them in front of Plaza Cinco de Mayo’s barber stalls at 8:00 AM. This was the second time they had passed the stop, having started their runs from Panamá Viejo at 5:40 AM. I hopped aboard and enjoyed the rest of the day riding up and down Avenida Balboa on their route to Panamá Viejo (see the red route on the map I made).
8:05 – Luís and Edwin tell all of the passengers who want to go to the Albrook Terminal that they will need to alight and transfer. While Panamá Viejo buses usually go to the Terminal, then turn around and return via El Chorrillo, Edwin usually skips the Terminal in the mornings because there aren’t enough passengers there.
8:10 – Edwin pulls over on the side of the transition ramp from Avenida 3 de Noviembre to Avenida de los Mártires. While he relieves himself on the back tire, a man using crutches hops aboard. The acquaintance calls passengers to the bus at the stops along the base of Cerro Ancón, and Luís gives him a couple of quarters for the help. Panama’s currency, the balboa, is equivalent to the US dollar, so bills and coins from the US are in wide circulation in Panama; coins are the same size as their North American counterparts, though the ones minted in Panama have Balboa’s head instead of Washington’s.
8:25 – We’re stopped waiting for more passengers in El Chorrillo. Someone who has been sitting on the bus for a while impatiently asks “How long are you going to wait to leave here?” Edwin responds that we will leave when another bus comes up behind us. One finally does, and we head out on the Peninsula, winding through the narrow streets towards Calle 12.
8:35 – We’re back on Avenida Balboa/La Cinta Costera. The bus’s seats are full, and about eight people are standing in the aisle.
8:45 – Luís shouts out, “Nadie para abajo del puente?” asking if anyone needs to get off under the Corredor Sur overpass. Nobody does, so we avoid the traffic jam there by heading over the Via Israel overpass.
8:55 – We enter the Panamá Viejo neighborhood, passing through a low density residential neighborhood for the first time.
9:20 – All of the passengers alight at the last stop on Vía España. Edwin hops off to buy his daily lottery tickets. The lottery is a big deal in Panama. In front of hundreds of stores across Panama City, people sit behind tables holding rows of tickets for sale. The daily drawings are almost ritualistic; prominent public figures consider it an honor to attend one. While Edwin is browsing the tickets, Luís and I talk about how the old buses are transformed in Panama. He tells me that many of the tourists who board his bus have no idea it used to be a school bus in the United States. Edwin returns, annoyed that the don’t have his preferred type of lottery ticket (“It’s 9:30, how is there no Chance?!?”).
9:30 – Luís gives a wag of the finger and a “No voy” to people who try to flag the bus down, telling them we’re not making a run back to the Terminal. We keep discussing the reuse of buses as we drive back towards Panamá Viejo. Buying in bulk, Panamaina bus owners can often get a used school bus for as little as $4,000. They change the transmissions from the original automatic ones to manual ones, which they see as more reliable. Luís and Edwin praise the reliability and durability of school buses from the United States and make disparaging remarks about the “air conditioned buses that don’t last,” such as the newer Hyundai and Daewoo models that have been increasingly used on Panama City’s streets. They prefer International chassis, and among body manufacturers, Luís expresses a preference for the way painting and modifications look on Thomas buses (over “Blue Beard”).
9:40 – We pass another Route 1 (Panamá Viejo por Avenida Balboa) bus, and Edwin tells me that the driver, who also owns the bus, has been driving it along this route for sixteen years. He then starts giving me a rough idea of financial matters. On a typical day, they will make 6 round trip runs, each taking an average of 2.5 hours. On average, on each one-way leg, 70 passengers will board, each paying a fare of $0.25. Average daily gross income is then 6 x 2 x 70 x 0.25 = $210. Diesel fuel, which is barely subsidized for bus operators, costs about $13 per run. The remaining $130 is split among the owner (who usually takes about $70), driver ($40), and conductor ($20).
9:55 – We pick up Edwin’s two-year-old niece, Briana, in Panamá Viejo to take her down the road to breakfast down the road at Parrillada Mario. Parked on the side of Avenida Cincuentenario, Luís and Edwin eat fried rice and chicken, and I breakfast on the blueberry bagel I had bought the previous day (from New York Bagel Café, which I preferred to the Dunkin’ Donuts down the street from where I was living in El Cangrejo).
10:45 – Edwin asks me if I’ve ever driven a bus, to which I answer no. He replies that driving a bus should be an important part of my research experience, and before I know it, I’m in the drivers seat getting a lesson. I practice with the clutch for a while, and eventually get to drive for a bit in traffic. See a video here.
11:30 – Safely parked at the Esso gas station near the Panamá Viejo piquera (bus yard/terminal area), we hand over a stack of quarters to the station cashier and laugh as we rewatch the video of my driving experience. I say that since I’ve gotten the experience driving, I should try being the conductor and calling passengers on the next run. Luís says this isn’t a good idea because of the traffic police; the conductor has to know where the traffic police tend to hide so that he can close the front door to avoid being fined. I laugh to myself at the irony of his reservation after I had just finished driving the bus.
12:00 – We buy some power steering fluid and top up.
12:40 – We drop off Briana and take some passengers back from Panamá Viejo to the piquera on Vía España. At midday, there are about six buses ahead of us waiting for departure clearance from the informal dispatchers (two twenty-something twin guys). Edwin takes a nap while we wait.
1:40 – We’re at the front of the queue and passengers start to board our bus. Ten minutes later, we’re almost full and we depart, beginning Luís and Edwin’s third run of the day.
2:20 – We pass Multiplaza and Multicentro on our way through traffic all the way to Avenida Balboa/La Cinta Costera.
2:45 – We pull into the local bus platform of the Albrook Terminal. Similar to at the Panamá Viejo piquera, there are a few buses waiting ahead of us. We will be running direct to Panamá Viejo (instead of via Calle 12/El Chorrillo or Plaza 5 de Mayo), so we get to jump a few spots in the queue. Luís stands outside the bus, taking turns with the dispatcher yelling “Panamá Viejo, Cinta Costera Directo, Multicentro, Multiplaza, Paitilla, Panamá Viejo!” He has to clarify for a couple of would-be passengers that Cinta Costera Directo means he won’t be going to Calle 12. Luís tells me that he gets annoyed with these Panamanians who don’t listen to him the first time. Sometimes when Panamanians ask him if he’s going to Albrook right after he says Terminal, he tells them no out of spite. He says he’s much more patient with tourists and always give them accurate information. Except, of course, when especially cute gringa tourists board his bus; when this happens, he tells them that his route runs in a big circle around the city to all of the best tourist spots. By the third time they pass the ruins of Panamá Viejo, the tourist girls realize he is joking and get off the bus, but by then Luís has already showed off his new friends to the other drivers and conductors on the route.
3:15 – Fully loaded, we pull out of the Terminal and wind around the large circular interchange at the exit. A couple minutes later, we are on the Avenida 3 de Noviembre overpass over Plaza 5 de Mayo. A couple of passengers stand up, make their way to the front of the bus, and say they needed to get off at Plaza 5 de Mayo. Luís gives me an exasperated look, and we stop at the entrance of La Cinta Costera so they can walk back to their desired stop.
4:15 – Traffic is getting heavier, and we make our way through it back to the piquera for Edwin and Luís to start their fourth run of the day.
4:40 – I hop off the bus on Avenida Balboa just before Calle Uruguay, thanking them for the great day.
My day riding (and, for five minutes, driving) the Pinky and the Brain bus was one of the best of my year. I was grateful for the useful insights and genuine friendship Edwin and Luís shared with me. In the following weeks, I had the pleasure of accompanying them on various bus-related trips: out towards Tocúmen to buy a new set of LED lights to adorn the front of the bus, to Los Pueblos to renew the bus’s insurance, and over the Panama Canal to Arraiján for a transmission repair (hopefully unrelated to my travails with the clutch).
Edwin invited me to travel out to Abdiel’s Garage to fix the transmission of the Pinky and the Brain bus. Though it came from the US with an automatic transmission, the bus was outfitted with a manual transmission, which was now spontaneously shifting out of fourth gear into neutral. A young Nicaraguan mechanic was able to successfully rebuild the transmissions of a couple of different buses. Abdiel, the owner of the garage and the mechanic’s boss, enjoyed joking around and giving people a hard time. Listening to his banter, waiting around for him to pick up needed parts, having lunch, chatting with other bus owners, and translating bits of School Transportation News articles for them made the long, drizzly afternoon enjoyable.
Generated by Facebook Photo Fetcher 2
One of my favorite places in Panama City was the Albrook Bus Terminal. Hundreds of diablos rojos pull into the thousand-foot-long local bus platform, and the pedestrian bridge from the Terminal to the adjacent Albrook Mall was an excellent spot from which to observe the buses. Almost all of these local buses are Type C former school buses. The breakdown of chassis manufacturers is, by my estimate, 80% International, 10% Ford, and 10% other. About half of the buses have Blue Bird bodies, and about half have Thomas bodies.
At the other side of the terminal, long-distance buses, with a wider range of body types and manufacturers, arrive at upper deck and depart from the lower deck. There is a 5¢ fee to access the long-distance boarding platforms, which is payable with a newly-implemented contactless smartcard system called Rapipass.
Generated by Facebook Photo Fetcher 2
Panamanians never seemed hesitant to take phone calls. In a couple of occasions at meetings I attended, people who had the floor and were in the middle of sharing an idea stopped to answer their phones. When I saw a film from Spain at a European film festival in Panama City, no fewer than three people picked up their phones and started talking in the theater. A song by Comando Tiburón, a group of Panamanian DJs, that was getting a lot of airtime during my stay in Central America sums it up well. Part of “She’s Not Here for Me (Blackberry Addict):”
She doesn’t want to drink,
She doesn’t want to chat,
She comes to the club but that babe doesn’t want to dance.
Nobody matters to her, she’s paying attention to just one thing –
To her cell phone…
Look at her, look at her
She’s a Blackberry addict.
It can’t be controlled
She’s a Blackberry addict.
She’s obsesed with BBM,
Checking all night she doesn’t even dance well
She’s got Facebook and Myspace,
Always connected to MSN.
If you’re interested in watching the music video of this song (full of explicit language and scantily clad women talking on cell phones), it’s here.
At the movie theater, the film’s soundtrack was very quiet, which made the phone answering even more egregious. The flipside of the Blackberry Addiction is that Panamanians also don’t seem to hesitate to express what’s on their mind. While my tendency is to quietly suffer someone picking up their phone, these instances of phone answering, as well as people rustling in their popcorn buckets, were greeted with a number of loud “Shhh!s”. People were also indignant about the quietness of the soundtrack, repeatedly shouting “¡¿Volumen?!” and eliminating any chance for me to hear or understand the film.
Generated by Facebook Photo Fetcher 2
Here is the next installment in the series of schematic maps I’ve made based on my travels. Panama City’s bus routes are difficult to map for a number of reasons.
First, the city’s layout is not conducive to a diagram based on 45-degree lines. Two geographical constraints, the Canal Zone (in which no development is allowed to protect the watershed that feeds the canal’s locks) and the Bay of Panama, form a 30-degree angle with its vertex in the southwestern historical core of Casco Antiguo. An urbanist study found that the city’s ongoing development follows this 30-degree template, even though the newest settlements are beyond the constraints of Canal Zone’s boundaries. I decided to embrace this 30-degree angle, fundamental to the city’s form, and base my map on the old Stuttgart transit diagram (See the scanned image from the Brian Purcell collectionhere. While such a purely isometric approach was infeasible for my diagram, I was able to achieve it in some areas (such as around the Terminal).
There are only five main bus corridors in the city: The Northern Corridor, Ricardo Alfaro Avenue, Simón Bolívar Avenue, Vía España, and Balboa Avenue. But in the outskirts of the city (and to some extent, around the Terminal), these trunk lines branch out into many different lines. Further complicating things are the various one-way streets and express/direct routing variations. I tried to show these clearly with arrows and black borders, respectively, but things got a little hectic around the Terminal.
Deciding which stops to show was also a question. My previous diagrams were of the countries of Belize and Nicaragua; cities were easy to mark as stops. The Diabjos Rojos, however, stop at nearly any corner when requested, so showing all of the stops was not possible. I decided instead to include the final stops of different routes, as well as the malls and shopping centers that the pavos (turkeys, as the bus conductors are called) tend to shout out when calling passengers.
Casco Antiguo (The Old Compound) is the center of the second of Panama City’s three iterations. After the first site (Panama Viejo) was attacked by pirates, Spanish officials moved the city to the fortified peninsula. It flourished there, and the churches, plazas, and old streetcar tracks testify to the area’s former prosperity. As the city expanded north and east, Casco Antiguo eventually fell into disrepair. The neighboring area of El Chorrillo was especially hard-hit in the 1989 US Invasion, and the resulting blight spread.
In the last few years, Panama’s government has been encouraging investment in Casco Antiguo. The resulting gentrification is interesting – fancily restored boutique guesthouses next to the rubble of colonial buildings, gelaterias in front of crowded tenement dwellings. The history and historical preservation of Casco Antiguo was the subject of a number of conversations in Alianza Pro Ciudad. One member told me about how a greedy developer working on a project in Casco Antiguo’s main plaza tried to add an additional story to a historic building, only to have one of the walls collapse onto the street below. An architect described his careful preservation work with a rare stone roof and how they contrasted with a neighbor’s gaudy restoration efforts. His words seemed to sum up many of the developers’ superficial care for the neighborhood’s character and current residents: “They manipulate the term restoration for exploitation.”
Generated by Facebook Photo Fetcher 2